Water Pollution Index: Measurement of Shallow Well Water Quality in Urban Areas

  • Ronny Ronny Poltekkes Kemenkes Makassar
  • Muhammad Ikbal Arif Poltekkes Kemenkes Makassar
  • Hari Basuki Notobroto Universitas Airlangga
Keywords: Fresh Water, Groundwater, Iron (Fe), Manganese, Total Coliforms, Total Dissolved Solids

Abstract

Determination of water quality status based on the pollution index method. Water said to polluted if it cannot use according to its standard designation. The purpose of this research is to identify and find out the level of pollution contained in shallow well water used by communities in urban areas. Water quality index measurements using the Storet Method. This study uses ten samples with techniques Purposive random sampling with well water sources used by people in Makassar, especially in Untia Sub-District, Makassar, South Sulawesi. The number of samples used was 15 water samples taken each week with a total of 10 shallow well water sample points. The parameters measured in the study are Iron (Fe), Manganese (Mn), Total Coliforms, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS). The results of the study showed that the condition of shallow well water quality classified in category D, which heavily polluted which means it not recommended to use before filtering. The increase in parameters that have exceeded the maximum quality standard comes from natural sources and high domestic waste from community activities. Water pollution is a condition in which a water reservoir changes due to human activity — the change caused by the entry of substances that should not be in the water.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

[1] F. G. Driscoll, “Groundwater and wells,” 1986.
[2] L. W. Gelhar, Stochastic subsurface hydrology. Prentice-Hall, 1993.
[3] A. H. D. Cheng, Multilayered Aquifier Systems: Fundamentals and Applications. CRC Press, 2000.
[4] World Health Organization, “UN-Water Global Assessment of Sanitation and Drinking Water: Targeting resources for better results,” World Health Organization (WHO), 2010.
[5] W. W. Yeh, “Review of parameter identification procedures in groundwater hydrology: The inverse problem,” Water Resour. Res., vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 95–108, 1986.
[6] Ronny. and A. H. Hasim, “Effectiveness of Multiple Tray-Aerators in Reducing Iron (Fe) Water Wells in Gowa Regency, Indonesia,” Ecol. Environ. Conserv., vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 22–25, 2018.
[7] A. Oller and H. Bates, “Metals in Perspective Groundwater arsenic contamination and its health effects in the Ganga-Meghna-Brahmaputra plain,” J. Environ. Monit., vol. 6, no. 6, pp. 74N-83N, 2004.
[8] Ronny, Erlani, and Jasman, “Level of Correlation in the Depth of Groundwater Wells: Iron and Chloride,” Indian J. Environ. Prot., vol. 39, no. 8, pp. 746–751, 2019.
[9] S. S. D. Foster, B. L. Morris, and P. J. Chilton, “Groundwater in urban development-a review of linkages and concerns,” IAHS Publ., pp. 3–12, 1999.
[10] S. J. Appleyard, J. Angeloni, and R. Watkins, “Arsenic-rich groundwater in an urban area experiencing drought and increasing population density, Perth, Australia,” Appl. geochemistry, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 83–97, 2006.
[11] I. S. Babiker, M. A. A. Mohamed, and T. Hiyama, “Assessing groundwater quality using GIS,” Water Resour. Manag., vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 699–715, 2007.
[12] D. M. Dauer, J. A. Ranasinghe, and S. B. Weisberg, “Relationships between benthic community condition, water quality, sediment quality, nutrient loads, and land use patterns in Chesapeake Bay,” Estuaries, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 80–96, 2000.
[13] G. Ferguson and T. Gleeson, “Vulnerability of coastal aquifers to groundwater use and climate change,” Nat. Clim. Chang., vol. 2, no. 5, p. 342, 2012.
[14] S. Foster, R. Hirata, D. Gomes, M. D’Elia, and M. Paris, Groundwater quality protection: a guide for water service companies, municipal authorities and environment agencies. The World Bank, 2002.
[15] R. Nagarajan, N. Rajmohan, U. Mahendran, and S. Senthamilkumar, “Evaluation of groundwater quality and its suitability for drinking and agricultural use in Thanjavur city, Tamil Nadu, India,” Environ. Monit. Assess., vol. 171, no. 1–4, pp. 289–308, 2010.
[16] P. M. Vitousek et al., “Human alteration of the global nitrogen cycle: sources and consequences,” Ecol. Appl., vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 737–750, 1997.
[17] Ronny, G. D. Dirawan, and M. Basir, “Strategies of Sanitation Environmental Counseling Towards Increasing Attitude of Community on Preserve Environment in Makassar City,” Int. J. Appl. Environ. Sci., vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 741–749, 2016.
[18] Ronny, G. D. Dirawan, M. Ardi, and B. Rauf, “Strategies for increasing Awareness on Environmental Sanitation in Maintenance Knowledge Society Environment in Makassar,” Man India, vol. 96, no. 5, pp. 795–803, 2015.
[19] V. Novotny, Water quality: diffuse pollution and watershed management. John Wiley & Sons, 2003.
[20] S. M. Kleiner, “Water: an essential but overlooked nutrient,” J. Am. Diet. Assoc., vol. 99, no. 2, pp. 200–206, 1999.
[21] T. Asano and J. A. Cotruvo, “Groundwater recharge with reclaimed municipal wastewater: health and regulatory considerations,” Water Res., vol. 38, no. 8, pp. 1941–1951, 2004.
[22] C. G. Sevilla, Research methods. Rex Bookstore, Inc., 1992.
[23] K. Hinkelmann and O. Kempthorne, Design and Analysis of Experiments: Introduction to Experimental Design, Volume 1, 2nd ed. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2008.
[24] Malim, Tony. and Birch, Ann., Research Methods and Statistics. London: Macmillan Press Ltd, 2006.
[25] J. W. Creswell and J. D. Creswell, Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches. Sage publications, 2017.
[26] Roscoe, John T., Fundamental Research Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences, 2nd ed. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1975.
[27] Diehl, P L. and L. R. Gay, “Research Methods for Business and Management,” New York McMillan, 1992.
[28] M. P. Doyle and M. C. Erickson, “The fecal coliform assay, the results of which have led to numerous misinterpretations over the years, may have outlived its usefulness,” Microbe, vol. 4, pp. 162–163, 2006.
[29] U. S. EPA, “United States Environmental Protection Agency,” Qual. Assur. Guid. Doc. Qual. Assur. Proj. Plan PM Ambient Air, vol. 2, 2001.
[30] L. W. Canter and C. Wood, “Environmental impact assessment,” 1996.
[31] U. S. EPA, “The National Water Quality Inventory: Report to Congress for the 2002 Reporting Cycle–A Profile,” Washington, DC. United States Environ. Prot. Agency, 2002.
[32] L. West, “World Water Day: A Billion People Worldwide Lack Safe Drinking Water.” New York, 2006.
[33] D. H. Pink, “Investing in Tomorrow’s Liquid Gold,” Yahoo. Arch. from Orig. April, vol. 23, p. 2006, 2006.
[34] S. Reporter, “A special report on India: Creaking, groaning: Infrastructure is India’s biggest handicap,” Econ. December, vol. 11, p. 2008, 2008.
[35] J. Kahn and J. Yardley, “As China roars, pollution reaches deadly extremes,” New York Times, vol. 26, no. 8, p. A1, 2007.
[36] C. Daily, “China says water pollution so severe that cities could lack safe supplies,” China Dly., vol. 7, pp. 2005–2006, 2005.
[37] E. W. Rice, R. B. Baird, A. D. Eaton, and L. S. Clesceri, Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater, vol. 10. American Public Health Association Washington, DC, 2012.
[38] K. G. Field and M. Samadpour, “Fecal source tracking, the indicator paradigm, and managing water quality,” Water Res., vol. 41, no. 16, pp. 3517–3538, 2007.
[39] C. N. Sawyer and P. L. McCarty, “Chemistry for environmental engineers,” New York. Mc Graw-Hill B. Co., 1978.
[40] J. W. Harvey, “Iron metabolism and its disorders,” Clin. Biochem. Domest. Anim. 6th ed. Burlington, Massachusetts Elsevier, pp. 259–285, 2008.
Published
2019-12-19
How to Cite
[1]
R. Ronny, M. I. Arif, and H. B. Notobroto, “Water Pollution Index: Measurement of Shallow Well Water Quality in Urban Areas”, Int. J. Environ. Eng. Educ., vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 75-81, Dec. 2019.
Section
Research Article