Process and Impact of Combustion on Cement Oxide Minerals: An Experimental Study
The main stages of the primary materials are that feed the furnaces to form the mineral compounds of cement, which are the stage of drying the materials from water at a temperature of 100 degree Celsius and moving to the crystallization area at a temperature of 550 degree Celsius. Thus, the free lime begins to break down the calcium carbonate by interacting with silica and clay compounds to form (C2S) at a temperature 900 degree Celsius. In the transition region at a temperature of 1260 degree Celsius begins the formation of liquid compounds (C3A, C4AF), where the formation of a compound (C2S) continues and begins to form a compound (C3S). When the temperature rises at 1450 degree Celsius, the formation of the vehicles is complete, and this depends on the quality of the blended raw materials that affect the life of the firing blocks and the fuel consumption. As for the silica coefficient, it has a major role in determining the clinker quality, as the best silica coefficient (2.7) was obtained, as well as the best coefficient of alumina (1.38), as well as obtaining the best lime saturation coefficient (0.96) and the percentage of magnesium oxide not exceeding 5 percent, thus stabilizing the ratio Magnesium oxide to form the best burning plants (108). The difference in the concentration of substances leads to an incomplete chemical reaction and this affects the size of the resulting crystals.
J. Al-naffakh, M. Al-fahham, and I. Jafar, “Chemical Specifications for Raw Materials Used in The Kufa Cement Industry in Iraq,” vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 9–14, 2020.
M. Benmohamed, R. Alouani, A. Jmayai, A. Ben, H. Amara, and H. Ben Rhaiem, “Morphological Analysis of White Cement Clinker Minerals : Discussion on the Crystallization-Related Defects,” vol. 2016, no. 1, 2016.
N. A. A. El-hafiz, M. W. A. El-moghny, H. M. El-desoky, and A. A. Afifi, “Characterization and technological behavior of basalt raw materials for Portland cement clinker production,” vol. 2, no. 7, 2015.
H. Panda, “The Complete Technology Book on Asbestos, Cement, Ceramics and Limestone,” Asia Pacific Bus. Inc., 592p, 2016.
R. Namli, “The Effects of Different Clinker Storage Systems on Cement Strength.,” Turkish J. Sci. Technol., vol. 7, no. 1, 2012.
S. Tsivilis, E. Chaniotakis, G. Kakali, and G. Batis, “An analysis of the properties of Portland limestone cements and concrete,” Cem. Concr. Compos., vol. 24, no. 3–4, pp. 371–378, 2002.
K. D. Ingram and K. E. Daugherty, “A review of limestone additions to Portland cement and concrete,” Cem. Concr. Compos., vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 165–170, 1991.
P. Hawkins, P. D. Tennis, and R. J. Detwiler, The use of limestone in Portland cement: a state-of-the-art review. Portland Cement Association, 1996.
A. Bahurudeen and M. Santhanam, “Influence of different processing methods on the pozzolanic performance of sugarcane bagasse ash,” Cem. Concr. Compos., vol. 56, pp. 32–45, 2015.
A. Bahurudeen, D. Kanraj, V. G. Dev, and M. Santhanam, “Performance evaluation of sugarcane bagasse ash blended cement in concrete,” Cem. Concr. Compos., vol. 59, pp. 77–88, 2015.
M. Frías, E. Villar, and H. Savastano, “Brazilian sugar cane bagasse ashes from the cogeneration industry as active pozzolans for cement manufacture,” Cem. Concr. Compos., vol. 33, no. 4, pp. 490–496, 2011.
E. Arioz, Ö. Arioz, and Ö. M. Koç, “The Effect of Curing Conditions on the Properties of Geopolymer Samples,” vol. 4, no. 6, pp. 4–7, 2013, doi: 10.7763/IJCEA.2013.V4.339.
K. S. Zhang et al., “Overcoming Catalyst Residue Inhibition of the Functionalization of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes via the Billups − Birch Reduction,” 2017, doi: 10.1021/acsami.7b12857.
F. Alemayehu and O. Sahu, “Minimization of variation in clinker quality,” vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 23–28, 2013, doi: 10.11648/j.am.20130202.12.
P. C. Hewlett, “Lea ’ s Chemistry of Cement and Concrete Edited by,” doi: 10.1016/B978-0-7506-6256-7.50031-X.
M. A. Aldieb and H. G. Ibrahim, “Variation of Feed Chemical Composition and Its Effect on Clinker Formation – Simulation Process,” vol. II, 2010.
F. M. Miller, “Dusty Clinker and Grindability Problems: Their Relationship to Clinker Formation,” Rock Prod. April, pp. 152–157, 1980.
S. Ghabezloo, “To cite this version : Comportement thermo-poro-mécanique d ’ un ciment pétrolier,” 2009.
S. Ghabezloo, “Cement and Concrete Research Association of macroscopic laboratory testing and micromechanics modelling for the evaluation of the poroelastic parameters of a hardened cement paste,” Cem. Concr. Res., vol. 40, no. 8, pp. 1197–1210, 2010, doi: 10.1016/j.cemconres.2010.03.016.
S. Ghabezloo, “Cement and Concrete Research Micromechanics analysis of thermal expansion and thermal pressurization of a hardened cement paste,” Cem. Concr. Res., vol. 41, no. 5, pp. 520–532, 2011, doi: 10.1016/j.cemconres.2011.01.023.
M. A.-F. and Q. A. A. Jameel Al-Naffakh, “Experimental Investigate the Effect of Burner Geometry on the Operation Window of the Burner,” Energy Res. J. Orig., pp. 3–6, 2019, doi: 10.3844/erjsp.2019.
Q. A. A. Jameel Al-Naffakh, Mohammed Al-fahham, “The blowoff limits and flashback limits for different diameter to length ratio burner,” pp. 1–11.
Q. A. A. Jameel Al-Naffakh, Mohammed Al-fahham, “Burner rim geometry effect on flame stability Burner rim geometry effect on flame stability,” 2020, doi: 10.1088/1757-899X/671/1/012003.
J. Al-Naffakh, “Experimental Investgation of The Effect of Burner Geometrey on Flame Stability.”
C. E. Weaver and L. D. Pollard, The chemistry of clay minerals. Elsevier, 2011.
F. G. Bell, “Lime stabilization of clay minerals and soils,” Eng. Geol., vol. 42, no. 4, pp. 223–237, 1996.
J. Madejova and P. Komadel, “Baseline studies of the clay minerals society source clays: infrared methods,” Clays Clay Miner., vol. 49, no. 5, pp. 410–432, 2001.
D. M. Moore and R. C. Reynolds Jr, X-ray Diffraction and the Identification and Analysis of Clay Minerals. Oxford University Press (OUP), 1989.
D. Carroll, Clay minerals: a guide to their X-ray identification, vol. 126. Geological Society of America, 1970.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Copyright of the published article belongs to the authors and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 (CC BY SA) International License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See the Effect of Open Access).